Vestibular Disorders and Balance 

The vestibular system includes the parts of the inner ear and brain that process the sensory information involved in controlling balance and eye movements. If this system is impaired vertigo, dizziness and balance disorders may occur.

Balance is determined by a complex combination of information flowing into the brain from:
the eyes,

  • Vestibular Disorders
  • Joints (proprioception), and
  • labyrinth (inner ear).

The Labyrinth: records the direction of motion ie. rotation, front-back, right-left, up and down.

Eyes: that record the position of the body in space and the direction of motion.

Cutaneous pressure receptors: are located in the legs and inform the brain what part of the body is down and touching the ground.

Sensory receptors: are in the muscles, joints and spinal column, which inform the brain if the body parts have moved.

Cerebellum and the brain: processes information from other departments and regulates the information.
Vestibular Disorders.ent

Vestibular Disorders

If disease or injury damages these processing areas, vestibular disorders can result as the brain receives conflicting messages from the other four sections.
Vestibular disorders can also result from, or be worsened by genetic or environmental conditions, or occur for unknown reasons.
  • Kerber KA. Acute Vestibular Syndrome. Semin Neurol. 2020 Feb;40(1):59-66. 
  • Baron R, Steenerson KK, Alyono J. Acute Vestibular Syndrome and ER Presentations of Dizziness. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2021 Oct;54(5):925-938.
  • Ahmadi SA, Vivar G, Navab N, Möhwald K, Maier A, Hadzhikolev H, Brandt T, Grill E, Dieterich M, Jahn K, Zwergal A. Modern machine-learning can support diagnostic differentiation of central and peripheral acute vestibular disorders. J Neurol. 2020 Dec;267(Suppl 1):143-152.